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Summary Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster

Download Õ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster 100 Summary ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Adam Higginbotham Adam Higginbotham ´ 0 Read & download The definitive dramatic untold story of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster based on original reporting and new archival researchApril 25 1986 in Chernobyl was a turning point in world history The disaster not only changed the world’s perception of nuclear power and the science that spawned it but also our understanding of the planet’s delicate ecology With the images of the abandoned homes and playgrounds beyond the barbed wire of the 30 kilometer Exclusion Zone the rusting graveyards of contaminated trucks and helicopters the farmland lashed with black rain the event fixed for all time the notion of r Surreal and demoralizing Midnight in Chernobyl tells the true story of the worst nuclear accident in the history of the world This statement by one of the officers from the Department of Internal Affairs of the former USSR sums it up He wrote in the official log on that horrible morning about six hours after the explosion at 707 am that The situation is normal The radiation level is rising These two opposing statements tell the story of a group of bureaucrats so invested in their careers and frozen by shock that the manager of the plant never gave the order to evacuate the town of Pripyat which was 2 miles away The leaders of the plant were crazed and couldn t or wouldn t act to save lives those of their workers or the town s people They also actively sought to cover it up This criminal negligence was also done by the government of the USSR They hid the accident from the world and also their own peopleThey also started looking for scapegoats The design of the reactors there were four online and 2 being built at Chernobyl were faulty from the start because of their unsafe design Many physicists had pointed out 2 major problems with them but were ignored Later it was acknowledged that several smaller accidents had happened with these reactors in different places in Soviet Russia but had been hushed up As a member of the IAEA the Soviets were supposed to report any nuclear accidents but secrecy was kingThe designers of this particular reactor had ignored 10 years of warningsAlso and this is horrific apparently radiation poisoning was not understood well by the workers or the plant managers who had little to no safety euipment no high powered showers many men injured in the plant wore the same canvas uniforms for days before being treated One poor man had walked through radioactive waste water and his skin came off in strips later After the accident was over they sent firefighters directly into the building without protectionThese same plant workers who suffered cruel deaths in mere days and weeks after the accident were later found guilty and blamed for the accident and their heroic sacrifice to try and shut down the reactor were not recognized until recently There had been mistakes made but if a safe shutdown system had been designed the reactor would have never melted down This accident and its effect on the economy was one of the things that eventually lead to the breakdown of the former Soviet Union

Summary ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Adam HigginbothamMidnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster

Download Õ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster 100 Summary ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Adam Higginbotham Adam Higginbotham ´ 0 Read & download Cades of reporting new archival information and firsthand interviews with witnesses journalist Adam Higginbotham tells the full dramatic story including Alexander Akimov and Anatoli Dyatlov who represented the best and worst of Soviet life; denizens of a vanished world of secret policemen internal passports food lines and heroic self sacrifice for the Motherland Midnight in Chernobyl award worthy nonfiction that reads like sci fi shows not only the final epic struggle of a dying empire but also the story of individual heroism and desperate ingenious technical improvisation joining forces against a new kind of enem Chernobyl The thriller like account of the disaster and it s aftermath On 25 April 1986 the technicians prepared to do a routine maintenance test at Chernobyl s reactor No 4 designed to showcase the Soviet Union s scientific prowess The purpose of the test was to simulate what would happen during an electrical blackout The senior engineer Leonid Toptunov was in the control room and began to power downFor a few seconds everything was normal But then there was a roar and the plant began to tremble A shift overseer watched with astonishment how the reactor s fuel caps started to bounce up and down before the entire thing exploded destroyed the nuclear core and blew off the plant s concrete roof Explosion of reactor block 4 26 April 1986 More than 30 years later Adam Higginbotham tells the story of the disaster and its horrible aftermath in a thriller like flair It s is a story of cover ups irresponsibility confusion lies and doomed ambition favoring Communist party leaders of the UdSSR and bailing on engineers factory workers fire fighters soldiers and civiliansThe mechanical engineer Alexander Yuvchenko was on duty that day and one of the first to fully comprehend the scale of the catastrophe He saw rubble a roofless cavern and thick severed cables swaying with electric sparks There was a shimmering pillar of ethereal blue white light reaching straight up into the night sky disappearing into infinity which was the radioactive ionisation of air The atomic contents of the reactor were spilling into the atmosphere and a terrifiing cloud emerged that blew north until reaching Sweden causing mystification and panic Evacuation after 2 days The citizens were let to believe that they would return soonThe response of the USSR was a nightmare Viktor Bryukhanov who was the director of Chernobyl simply refused to accept the radiation readings reported to him He didn t gave out an official warning and Ukraine s regional chiefs refused to evacuate while the politburo in Moscow downplayed the crisis highly alarmed at losing face before the international community and appearance every accident that did occur at a nuclear station in the Soviet Union continued to be regarded as a state secret kept even from the specialists at the installations where they occurred It took 2 days before the citizens around the reactor were informed that anything happened and were evacuated Before they cut the telephone lines silenced the propaganda radio but despite that everything was as usual The ambulances that were driving to the plant were doing so in the middle of the night without alarm to not seek attention People were sitting in parks children were playing in contaminated sand and everyone enjoyed a summer day in open air breathing in radiation When the order to move inhabitants out of Pripyat the model city built next to the plant for the factory workers finally came the citizens were bussed out They were told to go for approximately three days not for the rest of their lives and left all belongings behind A woman came home from a weekend away to find a ghost town with nothing but pets which were abandoned because their fur was contaminated Counterproductive attempts of putting out the fire and cooling In between all the bureaucratic incompetence were scenes of stunning bravery of those who understood that their life was ending and tried to safe everyone Helicopter pilots dumped tons of sand and other materials into the reactor to uell its burning red core Before they dumped water on it that only evaporated increasing the radioactivity in the air even After each trip crews would strip off their clothes and decontaminate as best they could Others wore their contaminated clothes for 24h kneeled in contaminated water used their bare hands and were sleeping next to the reactor while doing 16h shifts The pilots were vomiting between their flights and knew that what they were doing was deadly Some managed to flee others were threatened with their life if they didn t continue When they returned to their aircraft the next day they found the surrounding grass had gone yellow They knew that what they were doing wasn t working the reactor kept burning Still they kept on doing what they were told because the UdSSR government couldn t appear not to have the situation under control and take action They were massively afraid of the China Syndrome a core meltdown that would set the other reactors on fire as well and burn through the ground affecting all water lines up to the sea Looking back almost none of the actions they took proofed successful The empty city today most belongings were left behind and started to perishThey tried to keep the accident a secret to all means which backfired During the explosion only one factory worker died and one was missing but The New Yorker wrote of 2000 death and mass graves stating that the UdSSR would spread false information They did but the worldwide media did much worse They didn t have an accurate picture of what was happening and the impacts but spread wrong informations anyways It took two and a half weeks before Gorbachev officially acknowledged on tv that a nuclear accident has occurred Meanwhile 25 injured factory workers and fire fighter were flown off to Moscow for radiation sickness without noticing their families They were just gone In Moscow they underwent the three stages of radiation sickness Because of severe anemia their white blood cells plunged to zero All of them got their heads shaved off because of extreme hair loss and experienced extreme nausea and weakness until they suddenly felt better and wanted to discharge themselves A typical and misleading high before their skin went black and their lungs racked by gamma radiation stopped working Loved ones that were finally informed watched helpless as they died one by one The official death toll from the explosion was set to under 50 but until today it is not clear how many people died in conseuence of the catastrophe 800 000 men were send into the plant as liuidators to clean up the plant and there are unknown numbers of civilians dying of cancers or children s who were born with malformations Estimations range from thousands to millions People being tested for radiationWhat is even worse the 1986 disaster was not a single event Instead there were continuously other nuclear mishaps that were covered up before The USSR and the US carried out nuclear tests throughout the Cold War and both lied about the toxic conseuences to reassure the public that civilian nuclear energy and the bomb were perfectly safe Chernobyl was built in a watery landscape made up of numerous streams and rivers with a giant swamp Contamination seeped into the ecosystem affecting villagers who picked berries drank milk from cows and grew their own food It wasn t until the year 2000 that they shut off the remaining reactors of the Chernobyl plantThe main cause for the accident was the faulty technical design of the reactor which was a product of the planned economy of the UdSSR To operate safely the reactor reuired constant surveillance by the operators Due to the Cold War they wanted to proof that they were the first ones able to use nuclear energy for civilians which put them under pressure to the reactor fast and cheap Many design steps were skipped technology adopted than new designed at the cost of functionality The engineer were aware of the dangers the reactor imposed but were optimistic that close and constant monitoring would prevent any problems They wrote countless instructions and procedures but were careful not to expose the underlying design faults that made them necessary The Soviet Union s main aim was to present their technical superiority to the world Admitting weaknesses or mistake wasn t an option and covering up s common practice Chernobyl low radiation victims of the next generationA secondary problem was the training and operating rules for the factory workers that were confronted with tasks they weren t trained for The test running that caused the accident was practiced by a operator who had never done it before didn t sleep for thirty six hours and made a key mistake A lack of sleep and drinking weren t unusual among the operators running the plant They couldn t have understood or anticipated the reasons for the meltdown because the relevant information was hidden from the workers by the engineers All operators were sure that an explosion of the reactor would be impossible which is why it took them several hours to realize that it actually happened The dead factory workers were blamed for the accident even though the technical design error was the much bigger problem the origins of the accident lay with those who had designed the reactor and the secret incestuous bureaucracy that had allowed it to go into operation I think this is an extremely well written account of what happened in Chernobyl with the complexity it reuires

Adam Higginbotham ´ 0 Read & download

Download Õ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster 100 Summary ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Adam Higginbotham Adam Higginbotham ´ 0 Read & download Adiation as an invisible killerChernobyl was also a key event in the destruction of the Soviet Union and with it the United States’ victory in the Cold War For Moscow it was a political and financial catastrophe as much as an environmental and scientific one With a total cost of 18 billion rubles at the time euivalent to 18 billion Chernobyl bankrupted an already teetering economy and revealed to its population a state built upon a pillar of lies The full story of the events that started that night in the control room of Reactor No4 of the VI Lenin Nuclear Power Plant has never been told until now Through two de Evgeny Velikhov asked Deputy Minister Silayev to call Gorbachev with a message Tell him that our outhouse is overflowing and they ll have to climb a mountain of shit Midnight in Chernobyl is a comprehensive account of the events leading up to and resulting from the meltdown of Reactor Number Four at Chernobyl power station It details not only the technical failures that led to the meltdown but also the interpersonal dynamics and prevailing attitudes of secrecy and sycophancy within the USSR governmental structure that contributed to the disaster It also explores the subseuent confusion around how to contain the nuclear fallout and the monumental efforts by so many firefighters plant operators scientists doctors and ordinary citizens to undo the damage and save livesI went in knowing almost nothing about Chernobyl and found it absolutely fascinating and eye opening The author did a great job building a cohesive narrative out of what must have been hundreds of people s testimonies and a considerable amount of data likely obscured by secrecy and the passage of time I found I had no trouble understanding the technical explanations around how the reactor worked and what led to its ultimate meltdownOne of the things I found most interesting is the book s exploration of the part that cultural and interpersonal dysfunctions played in contributing to and exacerbating the after effects of the meltdown When General Pikalov forecast the decontamination work would take up to seven years to complete the hardline Politburo member Yegor Ligachev exploded in fury He told Pikalov he would have seven monthsAnd if you haven t done it by then we ll relieve you of your Party cardEsteemed Yegor Kuzmich the general replied if that is the situation you needn t wait seven months to take my Party card You can have it now There were so many nuggets of gold like this one within the book The focus on each individual person and their motivations and emotions brought them to life on the pages It turned what could have been a dry nonfiction account into a captivating readIf you ve ever been curious about what happened at Chernobyl I highly recommend this book It s accessible to the layman and contains so many insightful and often inadvertently humorous passages on what went so horribly wrong and the heroic effort to set it right Especially at this time when we are all dealing with a viral disaster in the making it can offer a bit of relief to escape and read about a completely different disaster from the past

  • Hardcover
  • 538
  • Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
  • Adam Higginbotham
  • English
  • 08 April 2017
  • 9781501134616